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3d printing inconel 625 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent high temperature strength and corrosion resistance. This makes it well-suited for 3D printing complex geometries for demanding applications. This guide provides an overview of composition, properties, parameters, and uses of 3D printed Inconel 625.

Introduction to 3d printing inconel 625

Inconel 625 is a high performance superalloy frequently used for additive manufacturing across aerospace, marine, nuclear, and chemical industries. Key properties include:

Table 1: Overview of 3D printed Inconel 625 material

Nickel Content58-63%
High StrengthTensile strength 1,310 MPa
Temperature ResistanceUp to 1,400°F or 760°C
Corrosion ResistanceHighly resistant to heat, acids, alkaline
Crack ResistanceExcellent fatigue strength and toughness
WorkabilityReadily weldable for joining
Common UsesAerospace, marine, industrial applications

3D printing enables fabricating complex Inconel 625 parts unattainable with traditional methods. Continuing reading for details on composition, characteristics, printing process parameters, applications and more.

3d printing inconel 625
3D Printing Inconel 625 3

Chemical Composition of 3d printing inconel 625

The Inconel 625 alloy chemistry includes nickel, chromium, molybdenum, niobium and iron:

Table 2: Inconel 625 alloy composition

ElementWeight %
Nickel (Ni)58.0 – 63.0 %
Chromium (Cr)20.0 – 23.0 %
Molybdenum (Mo)8.0 – 10.0 %
Niobium (Nb)3.15 – 4.15 %
Iron (Fe)Remainder
Carbon (C)≤ 0.10%
Manganese (Mn)≤ 0.50%
Silicon (Si)≤ 0.50%
Phosphorus (P)≤ 0.015%
Sulfur (S)≤ 0.015%
Aluminum (Al)≤ 0.40%
Titanium (Ti)≤ 0.40%
Cobalt (Co)≤ 1.0%

This carefully optimized nickel-chromium matrix provides an exceptional combination of heat and corrosion resistance while retaining ductility, fatigue strength, and weldability.

Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Inconel 625

The mechanical properties of Inconel 625 make it suitable for demanding applications:

Table 3: Inconel 625 mechanical properties

Density8.44 g/cm3
Melting Point2,300-2,460°F (1,260-1,350°C)
Tensile Strength125,000 – 240,000 psi
Yield Strength (annealed)110,000 psi min
Elongation30% minimum
Young’s Modulus29 x 10^6 psi
Poission’s Ratio0.29
Fatigue Strength110 – 129 ksi
Fracture Toughness200 ksi√in
Hardness~35 HRC

The combination of strength, cracking resistance, thermal properties, and corrosion resistance enable Inconel 625 to endure extreme environments.

Key Benefits of Inconel 625 for 3D Printing

3D printed Inconel 625 offers major advantages:

Table 4: Advantages of 3D printing Inconel 625 parts

High strength-to-weight ratioAs strong as steel at a fraction of the weight, saving costs
Withstands extreme temperaturesRetains mechanical properties from cryogenic to 1,400°F
Corrosion resistanceExcellent chemical resistance to acids, alkaline solutions up to 1,400°F
Crack resistanceHigh fatigue strength resists fracture failure
Thermal stabilityLow coefficient of thermal expansion avoids distortion
Food safeApproved for food processing equipment with no leaching
Custom alloysCan customize chemistry for application requirements
Complex geometriesPrint intricate shapes unattainable with fabrication
Consolidated assembliesPrint complex assemblies without welding, reducing costs
Rapid iterationEngineer, test, adapt parts through rapid prototypes

These advantages expand design possibilities and enable lighter, stronger and longer-lasting components.

Recommended 3D Printing Parameters for Inconel 625

Here are typical process parameters when printing Inconel 625 parts on laser powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition systems:

Table 5: Inconel 625 standard 3D printing parameters

ParameterTypical value
Layer thickness20 – 100 microns
Laser powerUp to 500 W
Scan speed800 – 1200 mm/s
Beam diameter50 – 200 microns
Powder size15 – 45 microns
Print orientation45° angles
Support structuresMandatory
AnnealingOptional 2,100 – 2,300°F for 2 hrs

Settings must balance density against residual stresses. Following established methods like ASTM F3056 minimizes cracking and distortions. Let’s look at common applications next.

Applications of 3D Printed Inconel 625 Parts

Common uses of additively manufactured Inconel 625 across industries include:

Table 6: Inconel 625 3D printing applications

AerospaceStructural brackets, engine components, hydraulic systemsTurbine blades, rocket nozzles, exhaust manifolds, fuel elements
Oil and gasDownhole tools, valves, wellhead systemsDrill bits, wireline tools, Christmas trees
AutomotiveTurbochargers, exhaust componentsManifold, supercharger rotor housing, turbo impellers
Chemical processingHeat exchangers, reaction vessels, pipe fittingsPipe spools and elbows, mixing blades, process equipment
Food and pharmaceuticalMixers, dryers, heaters, conveyorsBearings, shafts, fasteners, connectors
MarinePropulsion components, desalination systemsPumps, impellers, couplings, valves
Power generationHeat exchangers, steam system componentsHeaders, superheater tubing, condenser tubes

3D printing enables lighter, stronger and custom Inconel 625 parts consolidating complex assemblies across demanding applications, driving adoption in critical systems.

3d printing inconel 625
3D Printing Inconel 625 4

Material Options for 3D Printing Inconel 625

Popular Inconel 625 alloy options for additive manufacturing include:

Table 7: Common 3D printing Inconel 625 material formats

TypeDescriptionKey Properties
Inconel 625 StandardMost widely used grade for additiveTensile strength 1050 MPa, rupture strength 760 MPa at 980°C
Inconel 625 UltraHigher density and ductility30% increased yield and tensile strength
Inconel 718Heat resistant aerospace gradeExcellent strength and hardness >540°C
Custom 625 alloysApplication-specific custom chemistryEnhanced emissivity, conductivity, magnetism etc

Specialized Inconel powders optimize particle shape, size and chemistry to boost 3D printing success.

Inconel 625 3D Printing Standards

Key standards for qualifying 3D printed Inconel 625 parts and powders:

Table 8: Inconel 625 alloy 3D printing standards

ASTM F3056Standard specification for additive manufacturing nickel alloy
ASTM B946Standard for detection of defects
AMS 2801Heat treatment of nickel alloys
AMS 5662Laser powder bed fusion process requirements
ISO/ASTM 52900General principles for design and manufacture

Certifying printed Inconel components per these specifications ensures high quality and reliability for service.

Suppliers of Inconel 625 for 3D Printing

Leading suppliers of Inconel 625 metal powders include:

Table 9: Inconel 625 powder suppliers

LPW TechnologyWide alloy range, custom particle optimization$$$
Sandvik OspreyStandard and custom nickel alloy powders$$$
ErasteelBroad superalloy material portfolio$$
AMG Superalloys UKSpecialize in nickel alloys$-$$
TeknaAdvanced plasma spheroidization process$$$

These premium alloy specialists fine-tune Inconel 625 particle size, shape, chemistry and defects to ensure printing success.

Pros vs Cons of 3D Printed Inconel 625

Table 10: Advantages and limitations of Inconel 625 3D printing

Withstands 1800°F temperature swingsMore costly than steel or aluminum
Five times more fracture resistant than steelRequires heat treatment to relieve stresses
Half the density of steelSusceptible to micro-cracking without optimization
Resists hot corrosion and pittingHard to print overhangs requiring supports
Bio-compatible for food and medical usesLimited large-scale suppliers and printers
Print complex geometries consolidating assembliesPost-processing can be challenging

With sound process practices, the tremendous performance benefits of 3D printed Inconel 625 outweigh higher part costs.


Q: What causes cracking when printing Inconel 625?

A: High cooling stresses from large thermal gradients lead to cracking. Proper support structures, optimized process settings, pre/post-heat treatment, and machining reliefs all help minimize cracking.

Q: Does 3D printed Inconel 625 require heat treatment?

A: Optional heat treatment relieves internal stresses, enhancing mechanical properties and crack resistance. Annealing at 1900-2100°F for 1-3 hours is typical based on section thickness.

Q: What surface finish can be expected on as-printed Inconel 625 parts?

A: Raw surface finish ranges from 250-500 microns Ra depending on print parameters. Additional machining, grinding, polishing or electropolishing can enhance surface finish requirements.

Q: Can you weld 3D printed Inconel 625?

A: Yes, Inconel 625 can be readily welded using GTAW, electron beam or laser welding methods for joining 3D printed assemblies or modifying components. Proper fixturing is critical to avoid distortions.

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