Iron nickel powder, also known as nickel-iron powder or Ni-Fe powder, refers to powder metallurgy forms of an alloy containing iron and nickel. This versatile material offers unique properties and is used across many industries and applications.
This comprehensive guide provides key details about iron nickel powder in an easy-to-use tabular format. We will explore the composition, characteristics, production methods, applications, suppliers, and other technical specifications of iron nickel powder. Whether you are a manufacturer, purchaser, engineer, or researcher, this is your go-to resource for everything you need to know about this multipurpose alloy powder.
Overview of Iron Nickel Powder
Iron nickel powder is composed primarily of iron and nickel, with small amounts of other alloying elements. It is metallic in nature and magnetic. The powder particles are fine and spherical in shape.
Some of the outstanding properties of this material include high permeability, low coercivity, good machinability, and excellent corrosion resistance. These characteristics make the powder ideal for use in electromagnetic shielding, soft magnetic applications, brazing, welding, and more.
This section provided a brief introduction to iron nickel powder. The tables below cover the composition, properties, applications, specifications, and other details in a convenient format.
Iron Nickel Powder Composition
The typical composition of iron nickel powder is:
|35% – 80%
|20% – 65%
|0% – 5%
|0% – 2%
The ratio of iron to nickel can be adjusted based on the desired material properties and performance requirements. Specific alloy grades have standardized compositions defined by various societies and standards organizations.
The powder may also contain small amounts of impurities and trace elements picked up during the production process. The composition can be precisely controlled through atomizer design and adjustments to the melting, mixing, and blending parameters.
Iron Nickel Powder Characteristics and Properties
Iron nickel powder possesses a unique combination of chemical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and physical properties. The table below summarizes the key characteristics:
|Saturation flux density
|Fair to good
|Good to excellent
The properties can be tuned by controlling composition, powder size, shape, porosity, processing, and final part parameters. The material offers an unparalleled combination of soft magnetic behavior, modest resistivity, good thermal characteristics, and corrosion resistance.
Production Methods for Iron Nickel Powder
Iron nickel powder can be produced using various methods. The table below outlines the common production techniques:
|Melted alloy poured through nozzle, disintegrated by high-pressure gas jets into fine powder
|Molten stream broken into droplets by high-velocity water jets
|Rotating electrode process
|Molten material flung off spinning electrode by centrifugal force
|Thermal decomposition of metal carbonyls, followed by comminution
|Repeated cold welding and fracturing of powder particles in a ball mill
Gas atomization and water atomization are the most widely used methods. The former allows better control over particle size distribution. Mechanical alloying is used primarily for specialty grades requiring customized compositions.
Applications of Iron Nickel Powder
Iron nickel powder is utilized in a diverse array of applications spanning multiple industries. The major uses are:
|High permeability, low coercivity allows efficient magnetization/demagnetization
|Absorbs EMI/RFI interference across wide frequency range
|Excellent oxidation resistance facilitates joining of materials
|Metal injection molding
|Ideal for complex net-shape part fabrication
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|Print intricate components with magnetic functionality
|Used in solenoids, motors, generators, sensors
|Cores, circulators, isolators, filters
|Efficient magnetic flux linkage for electrical components
|Sintered structural parts
|High hardness and strength after compaction and sintering
The powders can be compacted into various shapes and sintered to obtain soft magnetic composites for induction devices, actuators, electric motors, antennas, and similar equipment. The corrosion resistance allows usage in aggressive environments.
Iron Nickel Powder Specifications
Iron nickel powder is available in various size ranges, compositions, and other specifications tailored to different production techniques and applications. Typical parameters are provided below:
Iron Nickel Powder Sizes
Narrower size ranges and custom particle distributions are available. Finer powders provide higher green strength and density while coarser powders improve flowability.
Iron Nickel Powder Compositions
|Small amounts of Mo, Cu, Mn, Si, C
Other niche compositions are manufactured for specialty magnetic, brazing, welding, and high-temperature applications.
Iron Nickel Powder Standards
Key iron nickel powder standards:
- ASTM B833 – Standard Specification for Powder Metallurgy (PM) Iron-Nickel-Base Soft Magnetic Alloys
- ISO 4491 Metallic powders – Determination of oxygen content by reduction methods
- ISO 4490 Metallic powders – Determination of hydrogen content — Inert gas fusion thermal conductivity method
- MPIF Standard 56 – Magnetic Materials Producers Properties and Terminology
Iron Nickel Powder Pricing
|$7 – $11 per kg
|-140 + 325 Mesh
|$8 – $12 per kg
|$15 – $20 per kg
|$25 – $35 per kg
Prices vary based on composition, shape, size range, quantity, manufacturer, and geographic region. Custom grades are more expensive.
Iron Nickel Powder Handling and Safety
Recommended handling procedures and safety practices for iron nickel powder:
- Use spark-proof tools and explosion-proof equipment
- Avoid dust formation and ignition sources
- Ensure adequate ventilation and respiratory protection
- Keep away from heat, flames, and incompatibles like oxidizers
- Ground containers and powders transfer equipment
- Store sealed containers in a cool, dry area away from moisture
Use appropriate PPE and follow safety data sheet precautions. Proper handling and housekeeping minimizes risks of fires, explosions, and health hazards.
Inspection and Testing of Iron Nickel Powder
Iron nickel powder quality is evaluated through standardized test procedures:
|Particle size distribution
|Powder packing density
|Settled density after tapping
|Powder flow rate
|SEM, optical microscopy
|Inert gas fusion
|Oxygen and nitrogen content
|Vibrating sample magnetometer
Meeting specification requirements for composition, powder characteristics, microstructure, and performance is critical for quality control and lot acceptance.
Advantages and Limitations of Iron Nickel Powder
|Tunable magnetic properties
|Lower saturation flux density than ferrites or Fe powders
|High permeabilities possible
|Requires care in handling and processing
|Excellent machinability and formability
|Shape complexity limited in powder processing
|Resistant to oxidation and corrosion
|Not suitable for low core loss applications
|Wide range of compositions available
|More expensive than iron powder
|Good wear resistance
|Brittle after sintering if porosity not controlled
|Custom particle distributions and shapes
By understanding the capabilities and restrictions of the material, it can be effectively implemented within design constraints. Continued research and development further expands the possibilities and applications of this multifunctional powder.
What is iron nickel powder?
Iron nickel powder is a metallic powder composed primarily of iron and nickel that is manufactured through gas atomization, water atomization, or other powder production techniques. It is used for soft magnetic applications, welding, brazing, and other areas.
How is iron nickel powder made?
The common production methods are gas atomization, water atomization, and mechanical alloying. The process generally starts by induction melting an alloy with the target composition, followed by disintegration of the molten stream into fine droplets that solidify into powder particles.
What are the contents of iron nickel powder?
Typical iron nickel powder contains 35-80% iron, 20-65% nickel, and small amounts of molybdenum, copper, and other trace elements. Specific compositions are formulated based on magnetic, mechanical, and other property requirements.
Is iron nickel powder ferromagnetic?
Yes, iron nickel powder exhibits ferromagnetic behavior, meaning it can be magnetized or attracted to magnetic fields. It has high initial permeability and low coercivity. This makes it well-suited for applications like electromagnetic shielding, inductors, transformers, and electric motors.
What is iron nickel powder used for?
Major uses include soft magnets, electromagnetic shielding, welding, brazing, metal injection molding, 3D printing, actuators, microwave components, inductors, and sintered structural parts across the automotive, aerospace, electronics, and other industries.
What are the advantages of iron nickel powder?
Key advantages include tunable magnetic properties, excellent machinability and formability, good corrosion and oxidation resistance, ability to tailor composition and powder characteristics, and capabilities for complex part fabrication through pressing and sintering.
What are the disadvantages of iron nickel powder?
Limitations include lower saturation flux density than ferrite or iron powders, more difficult handling and processing, restricted shape complexity in powder processing, unsuitability for low core loss uses, brittleness after sintering if porosity not controlled properly, and higher cost than pure iron powder.